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Low power objectives (up to 15 x) can, however, be used for either purpose whilst maintaining relatively good image quality. Spherical aberration, coma and deviations from the sine condition can be grouped under the common designation 'aperture aberrations'. 1 d IMAGE FIELD CURVATURE AND ASTIGMATISM An objective is said to exhibit field curvature if a flat surface located at right angles to the optical axis is reproduced as a curved surface. This defect, together with astigmatism, is often exhibited by poorly corrected photographic lenses.

6) the image is inverted and equal in size to the object. 7) the image is inverted and becomes larger the closer the object is to the focal point. e. it cannot be captured on a screen and thus cannot be photographed. In this case the image is located on the same side as the object and is right way up. Also it becomes larger the closer the object is to the focal point. Here the lens is employed as a magnifying glass, and the light rays converge in the eye to form a real image on the retina. 9) it will be reproduced as a real right way up image on the same side of the lens but closer to it.

Thus magnification in the microscope occurs in two stages, which is essential if high magnifications with good definition are to be achieved. 1a ILLUMINATION SYSTEM The following components comprise the illumination system of the metallurgical microscope. A light source. A lamp condenser, which collects the light from the light source. 7). 31 (b). Section through metallurgical microscope. 1. lamp filament ; 8. objective ; 2. lamp condenser; 9. specimen ; 3. colour filter ; 10. deflection prism (disconnected) 4.

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