New PDF release: Italian Medieval Armies 1000–1300

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By David Nicolle, Angus McBride

As early because the eleventh century, Italian struggle was once constructing alongside traces that have been distinct in medieval Europe. This fragmented, cosmopolitan area, more and more wealthy from foreign exchange, observed the increase of self reliant towns capable of fund armies of city military, occasionally defying the conventional feudal aristocracy.

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30 England turns against the papal temporal power regret ' the anti-Pope feeling ', since it was ' high time to resist the encroachments of Rome and to let His Holiness know that we are still Protestants '. Song-sellers in the streets peddled a piece whose chorus went like this: Monks and Nuns and fools afloat, We'll have no bulls shoved down our throat, Cheer up and shout " down with the Pope, And his bishop cardinal Wiseman ". 5 6 The objection to the pope's act centred on its political and not its spiritual or ecclesiastical implications.

22 The papacy: maintain the temporal power pressured the pope to make reforms, and by so doing agitated the revol­ utionaries. The way to peace in Italy would be for the agitators in Sardinia­ Piedmont and their agents in the Papal States to cease their disruptive action and for the powers of Europe to stop pressing for changes in the papal government. They did not understand, Pius contended, that to make the kind of reforms they insisted on would require that the very nature of papal government be transformed, something the pope could never allow.

Russell to Lord Clarendon, 26 Dec. 1 858, The later correspondence of Lord John Russell, 1840-1878, ed. P. Gooch (London: Longmans, Green, 1925). vol. I I , 229. -H. Berkeley, Italy in the making, vol. I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932, 1968), especially ch. 7 and 8. The complete text is published in R. del Piano, Roma. , 193 1 ), 343. Lyons to Normanby, 8 May 1 856, Lyons' despatches, 4-6. The French plan for papal reforms, June 1 857, together with the Austrian modifications, are published in full in Pirri, vol.

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