American Civil War Fortifications (1) by Angus Konstam PDF

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By Angus Konstam

The 50 years ahead of the yank Civil warfare observed a growth within the building of coastal forts within the usa. those stone and brick forts stretched from New England to the Florida Keys, and so far as the Mississippi River. at first of the struggle a few have been situated within the secessionist states, and lots of fell into accomplice palms. even if a handful of key websites remained in Union arms during the conflict, the rest needed to be gained again via bombardment or attack. This ebook examines the layout, building and operational historical past of these fortifications, comparable to citadel Sumter, fortress Morgan and fortress Pulaski, which performed a very important half throughout the Civil battle.

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The 50 years prior to the yankee Civil conflict observed a growth within the development of coastal forts within the u . s . a .. those stone and brick forts stretched from New England to the Florida Keys, and so far as the Mississippi River. before everything of the warfare a few have been positioned within the secessionist states, and lots of fell into accomplice fingers.

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However, the second clinching factor came in January 1949 when the Italian government made a direct appeal for membership in the North Atlantic Treaty. There were rumours at the time that the Italian request, made to the US State Department, was the result of US encouragement, and possibly a ‘put-up job’ by Washington to force the Europeans into accepting Italian membership. Certainly, the Italian request dramatically changed the political picture: the British Foreign Office noted that ‘we shall probably have to acquiesce.

The reason for this was the concurrent negotiations for a Scandinavian Defence Union (SDU), a sort of Nordic Brussels Pact. 48 For the Scandinavian states, as for Europe as a whole, the emerging bipolar antagonism generated questions of alignment and alliance: whether to belong, as Kennan put it. Alignment with the Soviet Union on the Finnish model was never an option; the real choice was between four alternatives. These were a non-aligned SDU, a Westaligned SDU backed in some form by the Western states, the North Atlantic Treaty (NAT), or unilateral isolated neutrality.

In short, graduated membership meant either allied guarantees without member commitments, or member commitments without allied guarantees. As such it was, despite its advantages, an inherently flawed idea. By autumn 1948, two factors emerged which had decisive effect on the membership issue. First, the Pact would be a treaty in its own right, rather than the dumb-bell concept of a transatlantic guarantee to the Brussels Treaty. As such, it had its own distinctive membership criteria: the treaty had to be given practical meaning by the inclusion of the stepping-stone states.

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