Read e-book online After phrenology : neural reuse and the interactive brain PDF

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By Michael L. Anderson

The desktop analogy of the brain has been as commonly followed in modern cognitive neuroscience as used to be the analogy of the mind as a suite of organs in phrenology. simply because the phrenologist might insist that every organ needs to have its specific functionality, so modern cognitive neuroscience is devoted to the proposal that every mind sector should have its primary computation. In After Phrenology, Michael Anderson argues that to accomplish a completely post-phrenological technological know-how of the mind, we have to think again this dedication and devise an alternative, neuroscientifically grounded taxonomy of psychological functionality.

Anderson contends that the cognitive roles performed via each one area of the mind are hugely numerous, reflecting varied neural partnerships validated less than assorted conditions. He proposes quantifying the sensible houses of neural assemblies when it comes to their dispositional traits really than their computational or information-processing operations. Exploring larger-scale concerns, and drawing on proof from embodied cognition, Anderson develops an image of considering rooted within the exploitation and extension of our early-evolving ability for iterated interplay with the realm. He argues that the multidimensional method of the mind he describes bargains a higher healthy for those findings, and a extra promising street towards a unified technological know-how of minded organisms.

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3) The presentation of a number at the fixation point prior to a target detection task will speed detection on the right for large numbers and to the left for small numbers. Hubbard et al. (2005b) hypothesized that the SNARC effect can be accounted for by the observed reuse in numerical cognition of a particular circuit in left inferior parietal sulcus that plays a role in shifting spatial attention. Briefly, the idea is that, among the representational formats we make use of in numerical cognition, there is a mental “number line” on which magnitudes are arrayed from left to right in order of increasing size (at least for speakers of left-right languages) (Zebian 2005).

In these examples the effects would not be accounted for by the fact that the meanings of numbers might be grounded in basic sensorimotor experience; nor is it immediately obvious what metaphorical mapping might be implicated here. In fact, if the reuse of spatial schemas were in support of some semantically grounding structural inheritance from one domain to the other, we would expect the numbers to be arrayed vertically, with magnitude increasing with Neural Reuse in Brain Function 23 height, given general associations of more with higher.

2004; Pesenti et al. 2000; Pinel et al. 2004; Venkatraman, Ansari, & Chee 2005). Zago et al. (2001) found increased activation in the premotor strip in a region implicated in finger awareness during multiplication performance compared to a digit reading condition, and similar findings were reported by Andres, Seron, and Oliver (2007), who found that hand motor structures were activated during adults’ number processing in a dot-counting task. Moreover, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) (Rusconi, Walsh, & Butterworth 2005) and direct cortical stimulation (Roux et al.

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