Advanced Data Communications and Networks by Dr. William J. Buchanan (auth.) PDF

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By Dr. William J. Buchanan (auth.)

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1 Entropy coding Entropy coding does not take into account the characteristics of the data and treats all the bits in the same way; it produces lossless coding. Typically it uses: • Statistical encoding - where the coding analyses the statistical pattern of the data. For example if a source of text contains many more 'e' characters than 'z' characters then the character 'e' could be coded with very few bits and the character 'z' with many bits. • Suppressing repetitive sequences - many sources of information contain large amount of receptive data.

I _ _ II _ _ II _ _ IL... I I I I I J - ~ - of -~ - -:--:- -i--.!. ;. - tI __ ~_L_~ '_~_~ __ . _l_l_J_~--~-L-~-l-~-J--. _~_~_~_J -, -1-1- -rT -r -t -, -'-1- -. 1 Introduction Most sources of information contain redundant information or information that adds little to the stored data. An example of this might be the storage of a rectangular image. As a single color bitmapped image it could be stored as: 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000011111111111111111111111111000000000 000000000010000000000000000000000001000000000 000000000010000000000000000000000001000000000 000000000010000000000000000000000001000000000 000000000010000000000000000000000001000000000 000000000010000000000000000000000001000000000 000000000011111111111111111111111111000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 An improved method might be to store the image as a graphics metafile, such as: Rectangle 11, 4, 26, 7 rectangle at start co-ordinate (1 1,4) of width 26 and length 7 pixels or to compress long sequences of identical bit states, such as: 0,45 0,45 0,45 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,45 0,45 ; 45 bits of a ; 45 bits of a ; 45 bits of a 1,26 0,9 ; 10 bits 1,1 0,24 1,1 0,9 1,1 0,24 1,1 0,9 1,1 0,24 1,1 0,9 1,1 0,24 1,1 0,9 1,1 0,24 1,1 0,9 1,26 0,9 ' 0' '0' '0' of a '0', 26 1'5 and 9 0'5 Data compression is becoming an important subject as more and more digital 16 Advanced data communications information is required to be stored and transmitted.

E' 57 - - . 'e' 57 -----.. 'e' 57 'i' 51 ---.. 'if ~'i' '0' 33 ----. '0' 33 'p' 20 ----. 1 Huffman coding example The fmal coding will be: 11 10 00 011 0101 0100 'e' 'i' '0' 'p' 'b' 'c' The great advantage of Huffman coding is that, although each character is coded with a different number of bits, the receiver will automatically determine the character whatever their order. For example if a 1 is followed by a 1 then the received character is an 'e'. If it is followed by a 0 then it is an '0'.

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