Access to Religion and Philosophy. Philosophy of Religion - download pdf or read online

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What counted as marks of design are those features in which natural objects resemble machines made by human beings: the fitting of parts and what can be seen as the adaptation of means to ends. Three kinds of these features particularly impressed eighteenth-century thinkers: the world as a whole, especially the solar system as described by Newton’s gravitational theory; the bodies of all sorts of plants and animals, especially certain organs like the eye; and the providential arrangement of things on the Earth.

Rather, God is of a totally different order and not subject to the same conditions as the universe. Why a single termination? Why must the regress lead to one first cause? Independent happenings might lead back to causes which are independent of each other. Therefore there would not be a single first cause but a plurality of first causes. Why cannot the different forms of the three ways lead to a different ‘God’ for each? Why should they lead to God as understood in the Christian concept? Indeed, why should God not be the originator and now no longer exist?

He wrote many philosophical and theological works. The ontological argument appears in The Proslogion. ’ However, there is much debate about whether Anselm was aiming his argument at believers or non-believers. Anselm recounts how he came to the argument. He prayed for a single, short argument by which to prove almost everything about God. ‘Suddenly one night during matins, the grace of God illuminated his heart. ’ What he had received was the ontological proof. Key words Necessary being: a being whose non-existence would be a selfcontradiction.

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