By Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II
Drawing on normally unpublished files, A kingdom Collapses revises the conventional realizing of a serious second within the historical past of worldwide warfare II: the cave in of the Italian fascist regime and Italy's unconditional hand over in September 1943. The e-book argues that, in the course of their mystery negotiations earlier than the overthrow of Mussolini in July 1943, either Italy and Britain negotiated in undesirable religion and with loads of duplicity. The ensuing misunderstandings and misjudgments led to an by surprise lengthy and brutal crusade of conquest following Italy's give up.
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Extra resources for A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943
The most concrete attempt, that of Lussu, has already been discussed. Within the Mazzini Society, an organization of anti-Fascists in the United States during World War II, there was an attempt to create a volunteer force. However, the anti-Fascist attempts at collaboration generally did not get beyond the planning stage. In Italy, representatives of the Action Party deluded themselves into thinking that they could establish a democratic alternative to the palace coup that was taking form. 70 Actually, for the British, the principle of unconditional surrender justified the intransigent posture adopted previously.
62 As to Mussolini's position, it is difficult to say whether the Italian unconditional surrender prevented a direct attempt on his part or on the part of those close to him to achieve a separate peace. 63 It is important to note, on the other hand, that up to the last moment Mussolini tended toward a separate peace, not with the 34 From a Separate Peace to Unconditional Surrender Anglo-Americans, but with the Soviet Union, so that the Axis could concentrate all its forces on the Mediterranean.
In fact, the armistices with the Eastern European countries signed by Russia and accepted by the United States and Great Britain were negotiated and included terri- 26 From a Separate Peace to Unconditional Surrender torial changes. The Soviet dictator also expressed the view that it would be better to tell the Germans what they could expect from unconditional surrender, establishing exact terms. 42 In fact, it was obvious from the beginning that the concept of unconditional surrender had different meanings for each of the three leaders and that their governments tried to impose their own viewpoint every time the disagreement emerged.