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By Terence Wade, David Gillespie

The 3rd variation of Terence Wade’s A entire Russian Grammar, newly up-to-date and revised, bargains the definitive consultant to present Russian utilization.

  • Provides the main whole, exact and authoritative English language reference grammar of Russian to be had at the market
  • Includes updated fabric from quite a lot of literary and non-literary assets, together with Russian executive websites
  • Features a complete method of grammar exposition
  • Retains the available but entire assurance of the former version whereas including up-to-date examples and illustrations, in addition to insights into numerous new advancements in Russian language utilization because the cave in of the Soviet Union in 1991

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11 Voiced and unvoiced consonants (1) Some consonants are pronounced with vibration of the vocal cords (‘voiced’ consonants), and others without such vibration (‘unvoiced’ consonants). (2) There are six pairs of voiced and unvoiced equivalents: Voiced б г з д в ж Unvoiced п к с т ф ш The eight other consonants include the unvoiced ц, х, ч, щ and the voiced sonants л, р, м, н. (3) Б, г, з, д, в, ж are pronounced as their unvoiced counterparts when they appear in final position or before a final soft sign.

G. аэроп рт Вн ково ‘Vnukovo Airport’), п ртия большевик в ‘the Bolshevik Party’ (cf. official Росс йская соци лдемократ ческая раб чая п ртия (большевик в) ‘Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party (of Bolsheviks)’), пал та бщин ‘House of Commons’, бундест г ‘the Bundestag’, сейм ‘the Sejm’. , are also spelt with a small letter (англич нин ‘Englishman’, москв ч ‘Muscovite’), as are 18 Introduction 17–18 the corresponding adjectives (англ йский ‘English’, моск вский ‘Moscow’), except where they form part of a title (Англ йский банк ‘the Bank of England’, Моск вский цирк ‘Moscow Circus’).

In extreme examples a series of commas in a Russian sentence may have no English equivalents at all: Мак ренко п шет, что д ти, кот рые ум ют труд ться, уваж ют труд друг х люд й, стрем тся прийт на п мощь тем, кто в той п мощи нужд ется (Belyakova) Makarenko writes that children who know how to work respect the labour of other people and strive to come to the assistance of those who need it 23 Uses of the comma Correspondence with English usage Commas are used, in Russian and English, to perform the following functions: (1) To separate (i) two or more adjectives which define one noun: Он шёл по тёмной, гр зной, ш мной лице He was walking down the dark, dirty, noisy street (ii) two or more adverbs qualifying one verb: 22 Introduction 23 М дленно, муч тельно он встал с пост ли Slowly, painfully he rose from the bed (2) To separate items in a list: Пл та за кварт ру, электр чество, газ составл ет bколо 20 рубл й (Belyakova) The rent, electricity and gas bills amount to about 20 roubles (3) To mark off words and phrases which stand in apposition: Валент на Терешк ва, раб чая девч нка из стар нного текст льного городк , ст ла п рвой ж нщиной-космон втом Valentina Tereshkova, a working girl from an ancient textile town, became the first woman in space (4) To mark off words which serve to define and specify: Зд ние д тского с да двухэт жное, с больш ми св тлыми кнами, с вер ндами для дневн го сна (Belyakova) The building of the kindergarten is two-storey, with large light windows and verandas for a daytime nap (5) After да ‘yes’ and нет ‘no’: Да, я согл сен с в ми / Нет, я не согл сен Yes, I agree with you/No, I don’t agree (6) In addressing people: Здр вствуйте, Ив н Ив нович!

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